The majority of software is written in high-level programming languages. They are easier and more efficient for programmers because they are closer to natural languages than machine languages. High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler, an interpreter, or a combination of the two. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language that has a strong correspondence to the computer's machine language instructions and is translated into machine language using an assembler.
An algorithm for what would have been the first piece of software was written by Ada Lovelace in the 19th century, for the planned Analytical Engine. She created proofs to show how the engine would calculate Bernoulli numbers. Because of the proofs and the algorithm, she is considered the first computer programmer.
The first theory about software, prior to the creation of computers as we know them today, was proposed by Alan Turing in his 1936 essay, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem). This eventually led to the creation of the academic fields of computer science and software engineering; both fields study software and its creation. Computer science is the theoretical study of computer and software (Turing's essay is an example of computer science), whereas software engineering is the application of engineering principles to development of software.
In 2000, Fred Shapiro, a librarian at the Yale Law School, published a letter revealing that John Wilder Tukey's 1958 paper "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics" contained the earliest known usage of the term "software" found in a search of JSTOR's electronic archives, predating the Oxford English Dictionary's citation by two years. This led many to credit Tukey with coining the term, particularly in obituaries published that same year, although Tukey never claimed credit for any such coinage. In 1995, Paul Niquette claimed he had originally coined the term in October 1953, although he could not find any documents supporting his claim. The earliest known publication of the term "software" in an engineering context was in August 1953 by Richard R. Carhart, in a Rand Corporation Research Memorandum.
People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.
Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software. If software is faulty, it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs" which are often discovered during alpha and beta testing. Software is often also a victim to what is known as software aging, the progressive performance degradation resulting from a combination of unseen bugs.
The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment, and in the case of free software licenses, also grants other rights such as the right to make copies.
Design and implementation of software vary depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, the design and creation of Microsoft Word took much more time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because the former has much more basic functionality.
Software is usually developed in integrated development environments (IDE) like Eclipse, IntelliJ and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the process and compile the software. As noted in a different section, software is usually created on top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) can be categorized by their purpose. For instance, the Spring Framework is used for implementing enterprise applications, the Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. When a program is designed, it relies upon the API. For instance, a Microsoft Windows desktop application might call API functions in the .NET Windows Forms library like Form1.Close() and Form1.Show() to close or open the application. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these functionalities entirely themselves. Companies like Oracle and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.
Active development of the Arduino software is hosted by GitHub. See the instructions for building the code. Latest release source code archives are available here. The archives are PGP-signed so they can be verified using this gpg key.
The Arduino software is provided to you "as is" and we make no express or implied warranties whatsoever with respect to its functionality, operability, or use, including, without limitation, any implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or infringement. We expressly disclaim any liability whatsoever for any direct, indirect, consequential, incidental or special damages, including, without limitation, lost revenues, lost profits, losses resulting from business interruption or loss of data, regardless of the form of action or legal theory under which the liability may be asserted, even if advised of the possibility or likelihood of such damages.
BOSTON, Massachusetts, USA -- Saturday, March 18, 2023 -- The FreeSoftware Foundation (FSF) today announced the recipients of the 2022Free Software Awards, which are given annually at the FSF'sLibrePlanet conference to groups and individuals in the freesoftware community who have made significant contributions to thecause for software freedom. This year's recipients of the awards areEli Zaretskii, Tad (SkewedZeppelin), and GNU Jami. As LibrePlanet 2023is a hybrid in-person and online conference this year, the ceremonywas conducted both in person and virtually.
You may have paid money to get copies of a free program, or you mayhave obtained copies at no charge. But regardless of how you got yourcopies, you always have the freedom to copy and change the software,even to sell copies.
The free software definition presents the criteria for whether aparticular software program qualifies as free software. From time totime we revise this definition, to clarify it or to resolve questionsabout subtle issues. See the History sectionbelow for a list of changes that affect the definition of freesoftware.
A program is free software if it gives users adequately all of thesefreedoms. Otherwise, it is nonfree. While we can distinguish variousnonfree distribution schemes in terms of how far they fall short ofbeing free, we consider them all equally unethical.
We want to invite everyone to use the GNU system, including businessesand their workers. That requires allowing commercial use. We hopethat free replacement programs will supplant comparable proprietaryprograms, but they can't do that if businesses are forbidden to usethem. We want commercial products that contain software to includethe GNU system, and that would constitute commercial distribution fora price. Commercial development of free software is no longerunusual; such free commercial software is very important. Paid,professional support for free software fills an important need.
Thus, to exclude commercial use, commercial development or commercialdistribution would hobble the free software community and obstruct itspath to success. We must conclude that a program licensed with suchrestrictions does not qualify as free software.
A free program must offer the four freedoms to any would-be user thatobtains a copy of the software, who has complied thus far with theconditions of the free license covering the software in any previousdistribution of it. Putting some of the freedoms off limits to someusers, or requiring that users pay, in money or in kind, to exercisethem, is tantamount to not granting the freedoms in question, and thusrenders the program nonfree.
Freedom 3 includes the freedom to release your modified versionsas free software. A free license may also permit other ways ofreleasing them; in other words, it does not have to bea copyleft license. However, alicense that requires modified versions to be nonfree does not qualifyas a free license.
Certain kinds of rules about the manner of distributing freesoftware are acceptable, when they don't conflict with the centralfreedoms. For example, copyleft(very simply stated) is the rule that when redistributing the program,you cannot add restrictions to deny other people the central freedoms.This rule does not conflict with the central freedoms; rather itprotects them.
Sometimes government export control regulationsand trade sanctions can constrain your freedom to distribute copies ofprograms internationally. Software developers do not have the power toeliminate or override these restrictions, but what they can and must dois refuse to impose them as conditions of use of the program. In thisway, the restrictions will not affect activities and people outside thejurisdictions of these governments. Thus, free software licensesmust not require obedience to any nontrivial export regulations as acondition of exercising any of the essential freedoms.
Merely mentioning the existence of export regulations, without makingthem a condition of the license itself, is acceptable since it doesnot restrict users. If an export regulation is actually trivial forfree software, then requiring it as a condition is not an actualproblem; however, it is a potential problem, since a later change inexport law could make the requirement nontrivial and thus render thesoftware nonfree. 041b061a72